Sabtu, 05 Desember 2009
The importance of education outside the school in accordance with the spirit of the times
Movement Anti-Unemployment and the Role of Non-Formal Education
By : HARJOKO SANGGANAGARA
(Cultural, Participant S-3 Program Graduate School of UPI Bandung)
Step Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (Depnakertrans) which launched the movement of unemployment reduction (GPP) should not be limited to programs that only excessive distributing the money a la Santa. GPP program that made the early breakthrough Muhaimin Iskandar minister look less systemically so that the impact is less widespread. Can not be denied, the movement that proclaimed anti-unemployment Muhaimin minister for the new limited-ceremonial for money in the form of deconcentration funds and ketransmigrasian manpower and funds perbantuan task.
Unemployment anti conditions should be based on objective and qualifications of the unemployed today. Data Central Statistical Agency (BPS) shows that the number of unemployed in Indonesia in February 2009 reached 9,259,000 people. Of that amount, qualified graduate unemployment reached 626,600 people, 486,400 of those diplomas, high school vocational 1,337,600 people, 2,133,600 of the general high school, junior 2,054,700 people, 2,143,700 people elementary school, and did not complete primary school 450,000. Qualifications of the most critical and complex issue is the junior secondary school graduates to not complete primary school. They had not received a scheme and a decent employment programs. Their fate and abandoned by the state simply allowed to earn a livelihood if possible. Unemployment should have anti reinventing education begins with the formal charge nor productivity and creativity in accordance with the progress of time. Reinventing the meaning of rediscovering the importance of non-formal education in accordance with the spirit and the progress of time, he will be able to give practical provisions for the unemployed. Unfortunately, non-formal education on hold at the moment looking at random with a charge or outdated content. Non-formal educational organizations in the district called PKBM (community learning center) and at the district / city called SKB (studio learning activities) are not able to adapt to the progress of time. Unfortunately again, the above organizations bound by a chronic disease of bureaucracy. Seeing the above conditions the importance of synergy between Depnakertrans with reinventing the National Education Ministry to conduct non-formal education in this country.
All parties must realize that the root of the problem of unemployment was due to the education crisis. Be worthwhile to look at the history of the world, where in 1967 in Williamsburg, Virginia United States organized an international conference on "The World Educational Crisis". The initiative came from a former primary school teacher who later became President of the United States, the Lyndon B. Johnson. The conference organized by the James A. Perkin, Rector of Cornell University. Based on the working paper of the conference attended by 150 leaders in developed and developing countries, taken several steps and a global agreement. First, the importance of a united couple basic facts of the educational crisis, and make it explicit and to make strategies to deal with it. Second, a systematic search method and does not terkeping-pieces. A fantastic environmental changes caused by a number of world revolution in the field of science, politics, economics, demography and social order. Education system is also growing and changing rapidly, but not able to adapt to changes around it. Consequences arising gap between the education system and its environment, it is the essence of the world educational crisis. Although local conditions lead to different variations of the crisis from one country to another, however, seems the common thread in all nations.
Important recommendations of the conference is the above pendididkan important role in all three environments, known as community or so-called non-formal education. Environmental education through the public or non-formal education has various names, such as adult education (adult education), continuing education (further education), on-the-job training (job training), accelerated (training accelerated), farmer or worker training (training of workers for farmers), and extension service (additional educational services). Humans as social beings become part of various groups in society, either naturally or deliberately. Human itself is part of the family, city, state and religious groups. There is also a group that deliberately entered as sports associations, trade unions, cooperatives, political organizations, arts associations and others. Through these groups of non-formal education can be done. Non-formal education can be a complement of formal education, especially when associated with the limitations resulting from the crisis.
Effectiveness and implementation of non-formal education can be seen the difference in the case of developed countries / industrial and developing countries. In developed countries like Europe and North America non-formal education is seen as further education for one's life. Lifelong education (life long education) is very significant in advancing and changing society for three reasons: (1) to obtain employment; (2) maintain the availability of trained manpower with technology and new knowledge needed to continue productivity; (3) improve the quality of and comfort of individual life through cultural enrichment by utilizing free time (leisure time). In developing countries, non-formal education started at random (minimalist), new limited its role to educate the farmers, workers, small businessmen and others who could not attend school. Another role is to enhance the ability of the people who have low educational qualifications so that they work more effectively. In the current era of globalization non-formal education system in this country must be transformed so that its implementation could approach the developed countries.